ELFA traction motors and generators can be mechanically integrated in a flexible fashion in various ways. Traction modules are available for vehicle weights extending from approx. 7 up to 28 tons. This means that a traction power range from approx. 50 kW up to approx. 300 kW can be realized. Today, to a large extent, so-called induction traction motors are used. These can be very cost-effectively manufactured as they are closely related to industrial motors. These traction motors can also be connected to the standard axle of a vehicle through a gearbox. Alternatively, a version is available for city buses, where the induction traction motor is directly integrated in a low floor bus axle. In addition to induction motors, innovative and especially efficient permanent-magnet synchronous motors are also being used. These motors set themselves apart as a result of their high torque and they can drive the differential of the drive axle without requiring a gearbox. These types of motor have a very high efficiency - especially at low speeds (city traffic). The well-proven second generation of ELFA converters ensures that all traction motors operate with the highest efficiency. All of the traction components have been optimized for operation in mobile applications. This takes into consideration both climatic loads and stresses as well as other issues such as e.g. shock and jolts.